Directed panspermia to secure and expand life in space is becoming possible because of developments in solar sails , precise astrometry , extrasolar planets , extremophiles and microbial genetic engineering . After determining the composition of chosen meteorites, astroecologists performed laboratory experiments that suggest that many colonizing microorganisms and some plants could obtain many of their chemical nutrients from asteroid and cometary materials.  However, the scientists noted that phosphate (PO 4 ) and nitrate (NO 3 –N) critically limit nutrition to many terrestrial lifeforms.  With such materials, and energy from long-lived stars, microscopic life planted by directed panspermia could find an immense future in the galaxy. 
Molecular signaling can also occur between individuals of different species, this has been particularly studied in bacteria.    Different bacterial species can coordinate to colonize a host and participate in common quorum sensing.  Therapeutic strategies to disrupt this phenomenon are being investigated.   Interactions mediated through signaling molecules are also thought to occur between the gut flora and their host, as part of their commensal or symbiotic relationship.   Gram negative microbes deploy bacterial outer membrane vesicles for intra- and inter-species signaling in natural environments and at the host-pathogen interface .