Three months later, the NIH came back with a compromise engineered by David Lipman, the agency’s computer guru. Publishers were asked to submit their papers to a new database called PubMed Central within six months of publication. The journals, not the authors, would retain copyright. And the biggest compromise: Participation was voluntary. The hope, Eisen says, was that the “good guys” (the scientific societies) would do the right thing, and the “bad guys” (the commercial publishers) would look bad and eventually cave in.