Cleopatra and mark antony essay

Cleopatra and Caesarion were crowned co-rulers of Egypt and Cyprus at the Donations of Alexandria in late 34 BC, following Antony's conquest of Armenia . Alexander Helios was crowned ruler of Armenia, Media , and Parthia ; Cleopatra Selene II was crowned ruler of Cyrenaica and Libya ; and Ptolemy Philadelphus was crowned ruler of Phoenicia , Syria , and Cilicia . Cleopatra was also given the title of "Queen of Kings" by Antonius. [36] Her enemies in Rome feared that Cleopatra "was planning a war of revenge that was to array all the East against Rome, establish herself as empress of the world at Rome, cast justice from Capitolium , and inaugurate a new universal kingdom." [37] Caesarion was elevated to having coregency with Cleopatra; he was also proclaimed with many titles, including god, son of god, and King of Kings , and was depicted as Horus . [38] Egyptians thought that Cleopatra was a reincarnation of the goddess Isis , as she called herself Nea Isis . [39]

Cleopatra was clever and well-educated, but unlike Caesar and Augustus the nature of her intelligence remains elusive, and it is very hard to see how her mind worked or fairly assess her intellect. It is the nature of biography that the author comes to develop a strong, and largely emotional, attitude towards his or her subject after spending several years studying them. Almost every modern author to come to the subject wants to admire, and often to like, Cleopatra. Some of this is a healthy reaction to the rabid hostility of Augustan sources. Much has to do with her sex, for as we noted at the start, it is a rare thing to be able to study in detail any woman from the Greco-Roman world. Novelty alone encourages sympathy — often reinforced by the same distaste for Augustus that fuels affection for Antony. In itself sympathy need not matter, as long as it does not encourage a distortion of the evidence to idealise the queen. There is much we simply do not know about both Antony and Cleopatra — and indeed most other figures from this period. The gaps should not be filled by confident assertions drawn from the author's own mental picture of Cleopatra as she ought to have been.

Cleopatra and mark antony essay

cleopatra and mark antony essay

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